Kidney stones can cause serious pain when they’re passed, and if they cause infection or get lodged, you may need minimally invasive surgery. prevention of recurrent stone disease is equally as important with emphasis on nutrition. If you feel you may have kidney stones, trust expert urologist David Schwartzwald MD, in Boca Raton Florida who has over 30 years of experience with kidney stones. Call the office or request an appointment online to find out more about the treatments available for kidney stones.

If you’re struggling with kidney stones, don’t wait to see a specialist. For patients in the Boca Raton area, urologist David Schwartzwald, MD is here to help! Dr. Schwartzwald is board-certified by the American Board of Urology and has over 30 years of experience effectively treating kidney stones. If you’re experiencing symptoms of kidney stones, visit our urology clinic in Boca Raton, FL. Give us a call at (561) 939-0700 to get started, or request an appointment through our secure online form. Our office is just a short drive from Delray Beach, Deerfield Beach, and Palm Beach.


When high levels of minerals and salt exist in the kidneys, they can form a clump of matter known as a kidney stone. These stones may stay inside of the kidney, where they will not cause any further harm.

The real problem begins when these kidney stones enter the ureter and block urine from traveling through the ureter to the bladder. This blockage caused by the kidney stone becomes very painful and can require surgery if they do not pass on their own.


Other than pain, patients with kidney stones often experience other symptoms such as:

  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Cloudy or discolored urine, usually pink, red, or brown in color
  • Foul-smelling urine
  • Frequent urination
  • Fever or chills typically occurs when there is an infection present
  • Pain radiating from the lower abdomen and groin, or in the back below the ribs
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Painful urination

If you have pain with fever and chills or pain that’s so severe that you can’t get comfortable, you should seek medical treatment immediately.


Many factors increase your risk of developing kidney stones. When your urine contains crystal-forming substances, including uric acid and calcium, it can cause your urine to become more diluted and stones to form. If certain substances are missing that prevent the crystals from sticking together, it creates the conditions that encourage stones to form.

Other risk factors for kidney stones may include:

  • Personal or Genetic history
  • Obesity
  • Diets high in protein, sodium, and sugar
  • Dehydration
  • Digestive conditions and surgery — such as inflammatory bowel disease or gastric bypass

Certain medical conditions, including hyperparathyroidism and renal tubular acidosis as well as chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs), can also increase your risk of developing kidney stones.


Not all kidney stones are the same. The exact type of kidney stone will determine the course of action used to treat the patient’s kidney stones. These types of kidney stones include:

  • Calcium stones (most common)
  • Uric acid stones
  • Struvite stones
  • Cystine stones


As previously mentioned, the method of treatment will depend on the particular type of kidney stone that has developed, but many of these stones are treated in similar ways.

Most often, kidney stones will come to pass. You can assist this process by drinking lots of water and taking over-the-counter pain medicine to help with pain management. It can take about four to six weeks for a kidney stone to pass. This may seem like a long amount of time, but it is safe to continue trying to pass a kidney stone on your own so long as the pain is manageable and there are no present signs of an infection. If you suspect that there may be an infection spreading within your kidney or ureter, you should seek medical attention immediately.

Some medications have been shown to help increase the body’s ability to pass kidney stones. Such medications work by relaxing the ureter, which provides the kidney stone with ample room to make its way to the bladder, where it will finally exit the body through urination. Prescription-strength painkillers may also be necessary depending on each individual case.

If the pain becomes too great, or if the ureter becomes completely blocked and begins to affect kidney function, surgery may be necessary. Modern technology allows for this surgery to be minimally invasive with minor recovery time. The most common types of surgery for the removal of kidney stones include:


Stones smaller than 4 millimeters pass on their own 80 percent of the time. They take an average of 31 days to pass. Stones that are 4–6 mm are more likely to require some sort of treatment, but around 60 percent pass naturally. This takes an average of 45 days.

Apple cider vinegar contains acetic acid which helps dissolve kidney stones. In addition to flushing out the kidneys, apple cider vinegar can also decrease any pain caused by the stones. In addition, water and lemon juice can help flush the stones and prevent future kidney stones.

As stones move into your ureters — the thin tubes that allow urine to pass from your kidneys to your bladder — signs and symptoms can result. Signs and symptoms of kidney stones being passed can include severe pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills and blood in your urine.

Citrus fruit, and their juice, can help reduce or block the formation of stones due to naturally occurring citrate. Good sources of citrus include lemons, oranges, and grapefruit.

Once it reaches the bladder, the stone typically passes within a few days. However, pain may subside even if the stone is still in the ureter, so it is important to follow up with your doctor if you do not pass the stone within 4-6 weeks.

Kidney stones can start small but can grow larger in size, even filling the inner hollow structures of the kidney. Some stones stay in the kidney, and may not cause any problems.

Yes. Calcium-rich foods such as milk, yogurt, and some cheese and oxalate-rich foods are beneficial for preventing kidney stones. This is because oxalate and calcium from the foods are more likely to bind to one another in the stomach and intestines before entering the kidneys, making it less likely that kidney stones will form.

They feel pain in their abdomen, lower back, or groin as the stone passes through the narrow ureter and beyond. That can also cause some gastric discomfort, which is centered in the upper abdomen and can be dull and achy or throbbing pain.